Sunday, May 24, 2020

Cure of the Streets - 540 Words

Rap was born in the 1970s as a need of African Americans, who were living in impoverished and crime-infested neighborhoods, to express the issues that they were facing. It was â€Å"a genuine reflection of the hopes, concerns, and aspirations of urban Black youth in the last quarter of the 20th century† (Powell 245). However, rap did not stay limited to African Americans. Its popularity expanded rapidly among the minorities because the problems which they were facing were the same. These problems were â€Å"a lack of access to justice, health care, voting rights, employment, and other everyday privileges of citizenship† (Price 2). Having come out of this environment, while serving as an alternative to the streets, hip hop positively uplifts the cultural barriers within the society and educates the youth. This paper argues this important topic, because in contrast to the common belief that rap is harmful to the society, it has many benefits to our youth, and its benefits socially and educationally improves our society. Since the beginning of the 1990s, when East Coast-West Coast rivalry was becoming intense and ended up with the death of two of the greatest hip hop artists, Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G, rap’s influence on our society has been argued. Many claim that rap negatively effects the education of the youth. However, the studies which claim this thesis are not taking the impacts of external factors such as peer groups, other media sources, and family education into account.Show MoreRelatedCure of the Streets757 Words   |  3 PagesThe poet Rainer Maria Rilke says that a work of art is good if it has sprung from necessity† (Farley). Hip Hop was born on the poor and dangerous streets of the USA. Minorities such as African-Americans and Hispanics dominated these streets, and they felt the need to address their long-standing common issues. Therefore, a new form of art, hip hop was born, and became the method of self-expression for these minorities. Lyrics have presented what they have been through. While rap has turned from aRead MoreThe Violence Throughout American Culture858 Words   |  4 Pagesthe model of Cure Violence. UIC’s epidemiologist Gary Slutkin established the non-profit organization. His approach was to stop the spread of violence in communities with high levels of violent behavior. His methods and strategies are based with disease control-detecting conflicts, identifying high risk in areas, treating high risk in individuals, and changing the social norms of a community. This model has become popular and is being used in various places other than Chicago. The Cure Violence modelRead MoreThe Problem Of Homeless People1278 Words   |  6 Pagestreat someone with disrespect for. Even if a person is homeless and it is there fault, they still deserve respect and help to get them on their feet, no one has any idea of what they could turn out to be. They could turn out to be the one to find a cure for cancer. Who knows! â€Å"In 2015, we do not have a homeless crisis. We have a housing crisis. Los Angeles County needs 527,722 additional affordable rental units to meet the housing needs of the many homeless, it’s the big cities the bigs states thatRead MoreEssay on Street Smarts versus Book Smarts706 Words   |  3 Pagespaying job, you need both â€Å"street smarts† and â€Å"book smarts.† The combination of practical knowledge and explicit knowledge is the key to a successful career. Both types of knowledge have distinct advantages. They have both used their experiences in life to achieve their goals. For example, if a street smart mart person had a severe cough they would ask friends, family about how they could make the cough better. Book smart person would check or search internet to find the cure. They are both determineRead MoreThe Plague Of Bubonic Plague1714 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Some victims reportedly went to bed healthy and died in their sleep† (Gale). This terrible epidemic is known all over the world for it’s deadly and unique characteristics. The diffusion, history, and cure are just a couple universal aspects that contribute to the well known, yet unforgiving disease known as the Bubonic Plague. The Bubonic Plague diffused to many people during its time of dominance. To start, the Bubonic Plague is transmitted to other living organisms in a distinct way. The plagueRead MoreLu Xun’s Medicine Essay examples823 Words   |  4 Pagestuberculosis. In the story you can tell that his family tries everything to cure him, they event tried the â€Å"guarantied cure† which is a mantou (roll) that is covered with the blood that was from someone how has been executed. Little bolt ate the mantou (roll), but it seemed like it had no effect on him but his parents still had high hopes, eventually he ended up dyeing from tuberculosis. I believe that the mantou (roll) didn’t cure Little Bolt because the blood on the mantou (roll) was from a boy whoRead MoreWas Public Health Better in the Roman Era or the Middle Ages?613 Words   |  3 Pagesplanned and built than those in the Middle Ages, which often placed wells and sources of drinking and bathing water in close proximity to cesspits and sewers, which led to infected water and cholera and typhoid outbreaks. Furthermore, many Medieval streets were filled with filth, such as animal carcasses, human and animal excrement, waste from butchers and tanners, and many more sources of disease, as bacteria could grow freely and infect people very easily. As well as this, there were also very poorRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Medical Marijuana1128 Words   |  5 Pagesheroin, cocaine, and meth is consi dered and tested to be the least dangerous of all those drugs. Marijuana is also a nonaddictive drug and nonlethal meaning no matter how much THC you put in your body you will never overdose. We can band a drug that cures medical problems, no overdoses and is nonaddictive, but continue to advertise alcohol that kills 6 Americans daily from alcohol poisoning. Continue to have commercials on cigarettes that have on average 480,000 deaths per year. Also, cigarettesRead MoreRyan Hoffm A College Football Player Essay926 Words   |  4 Pageslose the ability to have strong thinking skills. By losing the ability of having strong thinking skills, Hoffman lost his dream of becoming a N.F.L player. He became aggressive and lost self-control, which caused him to him to eventually live on the streets. His family took him to several psychologists, but he never went back after the first visit because he did not want to find out the truth about his illness. Ryan Hoffman wants to be independent and improve his lifestyle, but he does not have the initiativeRead MoreThe Problem Of Gangs And Violence995 Words   |  4 Pageslaunched a ‘cure violence’ program to help prevent the violence, and this program is managed by the Chicago Project. The social problem this community intervention is trying to remedy is to lower down the cases of shooting and killings on the streets. As it could be challenging to cha nge the individuals’ behaviors within a short period of time, this program focuses on developing protecting services towards the population that may have an immediate danger within the near future. The Cure violence paid

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay about The Once and Future King - 1411 Words

The Once and Future King, or King Arthur, is a legend that is, despite its age, known by all. Everyone has heard of King Arthur and his loyal knights that make up the Round Table, but the rest of the famous legend is less known. If asked about Arthur’s parentage or birthplace, most people would not know. How many people can name off Arthur’s knights? Everyone knows Arthur’s name, but the details are less defined. Arthurian legend has many parts, the first being how Arthur came into being, then the most well-known part of the legend, but there is also his famous knights, the possibility of a historical Arthur, and how the legend has evolved over the ages. One thing that is unique about the Arthurian legend is that it has a story to set†¦show more content†¦The most widely accepted myth says that Arthur wins acknowledgement as king by pulling a sword from a stone, after which Merlin reveals Arthur’s true parentage. Despite his young age, Arthur prov es to be an able warrior and a noble king and manages to push the Saxon invaders out of Britain. Arthur possessed the sword Excalibur, which was given to him by the inscrutable Lady of the Lake. Arthur surrounded himself with loyal followers that became known as the Knights of the Round Table. Like every good legend, Arthur had a nemesis, his sister Morgan le Fay. Morgan le Fay is usually an evil sorceress who spends her time attempting to steal Arthur’s throne for her and her lover. Mordred, or Modred, is another enemy of Arthur’s. Mordred is either Arthur’s son or nephew by his sister Morgawse. Mordred seizes Arthur’s throne whilst he is away and in ultimately slain by Arthur, but not before fatally wounding the king. Arthur is then said to have retreated to Avalon, where he waits to once again take his place as king, earning him the title the Once and Future King. Arthur’s knights were his most trusted friends and family, but ironically, he is b etrayed by the best of them. The most reputed of Arthur’s knights are Sir Lancelot and Sir Tristram. Sir Lancelot was the leader of the Knights of the Round Table and Arthur’s most trusted friend, but he was involved in an illicit love affair. This affair was with Arthur’sShow MoreRelatedEssay on Once and Future King963 Words   |  4 Pages Once and Future King Experience is Everything nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the book, The Once and Future King, T.H. White shows the importance that education relies heavily upon ones own personal experiences. When Merlyn is called on to tutor Wart, an adopted child, he uses this exact learning method on Wart. Merlyn, who is a magician, uses transformation as a his learning tool. Merlyn turns Wart into different animals to show Wart lessons of life. Through each transformation Wart experiencesRead More The Once And Future King - Mig Essay1084 Words   |  5 Pages The Once and Future King The legend of King Arthur is a tale as timeless as any other found in literature today. Introduced to us by Sir Thomas Malory during the fifteenth century in Morte d Arthur, it was the first complete tale of Arthurs life. Countless portrayals followed for any reader interested in the tale of the boy who was destined to become King. The Once and Future King by T.H. White is certainly the most popular representation of the immortal legend of King Arthur. It is similar toRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Once And Future King 1382 Words   |  6 PagesNathan Jarm Fourth hour December 16, 2016 T. H. White s The Once and Future King is one of the unique portrayals of the legend of King Arthur. White puts a twist on the epic saga of King Arthur, from his childhood education and experiences, up to his death. There has been other novels of Arthur s life, In the fifteenth century, Thomas Malory wrote le Morte d Arthur, the first complete tale of Arthur s life. Along with the other novels. Nothing compares to Whites twist on theRead More The Once and Future King Guenever Essay892 Words   |  4 Pages The Once and Future King Description of Guenever nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Guenever is one whose personality and appearance fluctuates often during the course of her life. The facts that she fell in love with someone other than her husband and that she never bore a child contributes greatly to these abrupt and drastic changes. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; The description of Guenever as a young wife is one with deep, clear blue eyes, which almost beheld a sort of fearlessness which was startlingRead MoreThe Once And Future King s Lasting Lessons Essay2364 Words   |  10 Pages Period 5 28 September 2016 The Once and Future King’s Lasting Lessons In times of crisis, people must rely on their morals and wisdom to come to a solution. Often times, people do not have enough knowledge stored in their minds to make a wise decision. However, if people would read between the lines of books, they would come to the realization that there are many life lessons to learn from the wise words of authors. Throughout the novel The Once and Future King, three major themes are presentedRead More The Once And Future King - Arthurs Failure Essay1057 Words   |  5 Pageseccentric necromancer with a weakness for humanity. Justice had been his last attempt-to do nothing which was not just. But it had ended in failurequot; (White, OAFK 634). The quot;hequot; in this passage refers to King Arthur, the main character in T.H. Whites The Once and Future King and Book of Merlyn, who failed in his attempt to unite England due to the mistakes made by him and those close to him. Arthur, betrayed by those close to him, not properly educated on the greedy, selfish, and violentRead MoreThe Once and Future King - Arthurs Failure Essay1104 Words   |  5 Pagesthinking by an eccentric necromancer with a weakness for humanity. Justice had been his last attempt-to do nothing which was not just. But it had ended in failure (White, OAFK 634). The he in this passage refers to King Arthur, the main character in T.H. Whites The Once and Future King and Book of Merlyn, who failed in his attempt to unite England due to the mistakes made by him and those close to him. Arthur, betrayed by those close to him, not properly educated on the greedy, selfish, and violentRead MoreSatire and Tone in The Once and Future King Essay470 Words   |  2 PagesThere is a direct link in Book I and Book IV of the Once and Future King from the animation and adventure that Wart experiences to the fall of King Arthur’s reign. The shift is long and detailed but in the end everything t ies together. Although at points the plot is grim, White throws in a little bit of satire throughout every book, for example in Book II when the Orkney environment is harsh but then it is contradicted by the behavior of Sir Pellinore, Sir Grummore, and Sir Palomides. In BookRead MoreMerlin From Le Morte DArthur And The Once And Future King1092 Words   |  5 Pagesabnormal abilities to protect and give advice. Merlyn from from The Once and Future King is also a supernatural aid who uses his anomalistic abilities to protect and give advice, but he directly helps the hero. Both stories involve supernatural aids, but each help the hero in a contradistinctive way. Although Merlin appears as Arthur’s metaphysical aid in both Le Morte D’Arthur and The Once and Future King, Merlin in The Once and Future King is a better supernatural aid, according to Campbell’s theory.Read MoreCompare And Contrast Beowulf And King Arthur901 Words   |  4 Pagesheroes possess influ ence their own lives and those of the people around them, specifically like the heroes in the epic â€Å"Beowulf† and the novel The Once and Future King. Each trait that Arthur and Beowulf possessed impacted major events in their lives, such as defeating Grendel in â€Å"Beowulf† or removing Excalibur from the stone in The Once and Future King. In both literary pieces, Arthur and Beowulf embark on quests in order to save their people. For both heroes, the effects of their actions differed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Abiotic Factors Affecting Organisms †revision notes Free Essays

Light Light intensity can be measured both physically measured for example with a LICOR light meter or a QSL (quantum scalar irradiance) meter. Luminous intensity can be measured subjectively measured with eg. a foot-candle meter, a type of photographic exposure meter. We will write a custom essay sample on Abiotic Factors Affecting Organisms – revision notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Intensity-watts rn-2 or einsteins m-2sec-1 Luminosity Units include candles, lumens, footcandles and lux. Temperature Temperature is measured using a thermometer. It’s also a measure of how fast the atoms and molecules of a substance are moving. The units of measure are degrees on the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales. Humidity Hygrometers may be designed for indoor or outdoor use (or both). Analog hygrometers use a moisture-sensitive material that is attached to a coil spring. The spring controls a needle on an easy-to-read circular dial. Analog hygrometers are often part of a durable, weather-resistant device that also includes a thermometer. Digital hygrometers determine the relative humidity by using a sensor to monitor an electric current that is affected by moisture levels. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent. Salinity Salinity is often measured by measuring how well electricity travels through the water. This property of water is called conductivity. Water that has dissolved salt in it will conduct electricity better than water with no dissolved salt.Handheld Refractometer /Hydrometer /Conductivity Meter expressed in parts per million(ppm) O2 concentration Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method for monitoring a person’s O2 saturation. Or Gas sensor used. pO2 CO2 concentration Use a sensor connected to a PC via an arduino board. pCO2 Wind Wind speed is now commonly measured with an anemometer but can also be classified using the older Beaufort scale which is based on people’s observation of specifically definedwind effects. Knot Factor– Light Light is important to both animals and plants as it is the main source of living organisms energy on earth. It takes part in photosynthesis which provides energy to both animals and plants, required for growth, movement and survival. Plants need to grow to be used as a food source for animals. Light is also important for animals vision, without light we would not be able to see which would hamper movement and many senses. Humans also required sunlight for vitamin D. Light is also needed for warmth. Factor– Temperature Temperature is a major determining factor of global climate patterns. It affects the life cycles of plants and animals, influences weather and tides, and controls the freeze and thaw of the polar ice caps. A small change in average temperature can have powerful effects on the environment worldwide and can determine if a certain species has a suitable habitat for survival. Temperature also affects the rate of important reactions, it effects enzymes and many other chemicals and their efficiency. Factor-Humidity Humidity drives most of the observable weather phenomena starting with clouds via fog, rain to storms and finally to such dramatic weather phenomena as hurricanes. It is not possible to forecast the weather exactly without precise knowledge of humidity in all the layers of the atmosphere. Humidity affects chemical reactions, the environment of animals and plants. Factor– Salinity Ocean salinity plays key roles in the global hydrological cycle, ocean circulation and in regulating Earth’s climate. Today’s scientists know that Earth’s water cycle is dominated by exchanges between the ocean and atmosphere, with sea surface salinity (SSS) varying because of freshwater input and output, via the processes of evaporation and precipitation. Factor– O2 Concentration plant cells need oxygen to live, because without oxygen they can’t perform aerobic respiration to produce co2 (respiration is the process of breaking down food to get energy). Similarly animals need o2 to respire and live, breath and produce energy. O2 concentration also effects habitats as different species require different levels of o2. Factor– CO2 Concentration Without CO2 the life of photosynthetic organisms and animals would be impossible, given that CO2 provides the basis for the synthesis of organic compounds that provide nutrients for plants and animals. We also know CO2 is toxic to humans therefore affects their health. However plants need co2 for energy. Factor-Wind Wind effects seed dispersal and aids the production of pollen needed for pollination which is important because it leads to the production of fruits we can eat, and seeds that will create more plants. Wind also effects the moisture surrounding guard cells and the gas and water exchange in plants and animals. How to cite Abiotic Factors Affecting Organisms – revision notes, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Happiness Function Morality and Virtue Essay Example For Students

Happiness Function Morality and Virtue Essay Happiness, Function, Morality, and VirtueAristotle argues that happiness, function and morality are closely connected and that virtue is dependent upon all of them. To fully comprehend Aristotle’s theory, we must first examine each of these qualities and then determine how they are related to one another. The deliberation process will show that all of these qualities can be strongly connected, but not exclusively. Happiness, function, morality and virtue can exist independent of one another. The first deliberation is to define happiness. Happiness is the highest of all practical goods identified with â€Å" living well of doing well†(100). According to Aristotle, Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim. But a certain difference is found among ends (99). An example of this reflection would be the final product created by an architect. This individual completed building a structure from start to finish and has reached the end of the project. The architect is pleased by the results of what she created. The architect achieved the desired outcome and is therefore happy. A difference between the actual end and the desired outcome is what makes happiness different for each individual. All ends do not lead to happiness. For example, finishing a painting makes the artist happy but not the autoworker whose preferred end is making vehicles. The fact that not all human beings share the same ends proves that happiness is found at different ends. Aristotle illustrates happiness as being the â€Å"chief good†. In the following quote he explains that rational human beings take happiness for itself and never for any other reasons: Since there are evidently more than one end, and we choose some of these†¦for the sake of something else, cl early not all ends are final ends; but the chief good is evidently something final. (103). By this definition, happiness must be only the final end, which is the â€Å"chief good† (103). This means that happiness is the pursuit of all that which is desired, and the desire is to reach the final end. If the end is final it becomes the â€Å"chief good† (103). In Aristotle’s own words he says, â€Å"Happiness, then, is something final and self-sufficient, and is the end of action†(103). To say that happiness is the only chief good is not completely true. If happiness is the only chief good than what is our function as human beings?Aristotle associates functioning well with happiness and happiness is the final result. He says that the function of human being is, â€Å"†¦an activity of soul which follows or implies a rational principle†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (103). Human beings must have the ability to exercise their capacity to reason in order to function well. Reasoning is the key factor in making decisions. Human beings use reasoning to decide what ch oices to make in life. The outcome of the choices humans make is what creates desire. As a result, desires are what determine the â€Å"chief good† (103). If the chief good is happiness, than the function of human beings and reasoning must also be happiness. One will stay on the path towards happiness if reasoning is used as a function of life. Having virtue is an essential part of the equation that sustains happiness and the ability to function well. Rather than taking detours down paths of deficiency and excessiveness, one may use reasoning to become a virtuous person. By staying committed to the path toward happiness, one is considered virtuous. Aristotle claims that the, â€Å"virtue of man also will be the state of character which makes a man good and which makes him do his own work well†(111). If the above statement is true than only virtuous human beings are happy and if they are happy than they must also be functioning well. .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .postImageUrl , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:hover , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:visited , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:active { border:0!important; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:active , .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571 .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u53cd03cdc73b33cd949e7de182f38571:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Geographical Information System EssayAristotle then divides virtue into two separate areas: intellectual virtue and moral virtue. He says that moral virtue is the result of â€Å"habit†(108). If moral virtue is â€Å"habit†(108), it cannot be â€Å"nature†(109). Let us bring this to a deeper level. Gravity by nature pulls everything to the earth’s surface at a fixed rate. This rate can never be changed by the habit of something else. For example, no matter how many times running water is diverted from its original path to the lowest point, the laws of physics will always prevail. The running water will once again find its path to the lowest poin t. This proves that any sort of habit cannot change nature. However, intellectual virtue comes from what is taught and learned throughout life by habit. Aristotle’s example of intellectual virtue is made clear when he says, â€Å"†¦legislators make the citizens good by forming habits in them, and this is the wish of every legislator, and those who do not effect it miss their mark, and it is in this that a good constitution differs from a bad one† (109). If virtue is the state of character, than the state of character defined by Aristotle is, â€Å"what makes a man good and which makes him do his own work well† (111). If it is true that virtue gives people a choice, than Aristotle is correct when he states without doubt that we as human beings could, â€Å"†¦take more, less, or an equal amount†(112). If a person chooses to stay within the mean than they are â€Å"intermediate† or equal. If they choose to â€Å"take more† than they are excessive. Finally, if they choose to take â€Å"less† then they are deficient (112). Therefore, happiness and virtue are in-between excess and deficiency. For example, if one is excessive in the characteristic of courage than others might view them as being afraid of nothing. If an individual is afraid of nothing than they cannot be happy. People do not always admire absolute courage. There is a time and place for courage. The same can be said for those people who are deficient or lacking courage. In other words, happiness is being intermediate. Aristotle has some good points when he speaks about the concepts of happiness, but his thoughts also imply that happiness, function, morality and virtue are all tied together as if they are inseparable. He states that happiness is the aim of the â€Å"chief good†. Function is the ability to reason, morality is knowledge gained through habit of what is right or wrong and virtue is a state of mind of that which is intermediate. The way Aristotle ties these separate elements together is remarkable and in a perfect world his theory would probably be true. The only down fall to his hypothesis is that this world in which we live is not a perfect one. Even Aristotle says that the â€Å"chief good† is the â€Å"final end†(100). If this is so, than life cannot be considered happy until it ceases to exist. The ability to reason is not the only purpose of human existence. The main function of human beings is instead the ability to survive with the advantage of being able to reason. Morality is the distinction between what is right and wrong and this distinction is dependent on the individual and the situation. Virtue includes all characteristics that have merit and that are held in high regard. This deliberation with Aristotle’s theory has proven that happiness, function, morality and virtue are tied to one another in a perfect world. These four elements are also inter-mingled in our non-perfect world, but only under certain circumstances. This is because every human being has their own perception of what represents happiness, function, morality and virtue. Finally, Aristotle says that virtue is being intermediate, but how realistic is it to believe that virtue can only exist for those who always stay with-in the mean? Just as we don’t have a perfect world, there is no perfect human being either. .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .postImageUrl , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:hover , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:visited , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:active { border:0!important; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:active , .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua40e0b42fc40e93b890fbfe41ad693ac:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Radiology best flashBibliography:Work CitedNewberry, Paul A. Theories of Ethics. Mayfield Publishing Company: California, 1999. Nicomachean Ethics. 2000. Online. Internet. 22 Feb.1994-1998. Available:http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.1.i.html

Sunday, March 29, 2020

An Unforgettable Camping Experience Essay Example

An Unforgettable Camping Experience Essay I couldn’t believe the day had finally come. My friends and I had been talking about it for what seemed like months. Every year our class 5B takes a trip to the Sahara Campgrounds. As soon as you see the entrance sign, a sudden tingling feeling bubbles through your body knowing a few days of relaxing from school work is about to start. On a sunny day in July of 2009, our class got into the bus and headed to our campground. I sat comfortably in between my best friends Rona and Tamara, while Nadia and Karin sat at the very back of the bus and behind them sat my younger cousins Sarah and Salam. It was a little tight and looked like everyone was sitting on top of each other. After what seemed like forever, we got out and were greeted by the camp consular for instructions on how to setup our tents and how to protect ourselves from wild animals such as bears. Once we finished putting up our tents, some of the girls started playing hide and seek while the others sat around the camp fire sharing stories and laughing. We will write a custom essay sample on An Unforgettable Camping Experience specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on An Unforgettable Camping Experience specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on An Unforgettable Camping Experience specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After starting our first campfire, I could feel the heat touching my face and the campfire smoke almost perfumed my clothes. We would cook hot dogs hamburgers, fish, corn on a cob, and everyone favorite smores. The students all took turns telling a scary story. Rona and Karin where screaming so loud it could have been heard from miles away. But, Nadia, Tamara and I, just sat quietly waiting for the next story as we knew most of the kids where making them up. Evening came and everyone was getting ready for bed. Just few minutes after we turned off the lanterns, we heard loud shouting and screaming coming from outside our tent. I peeked out of and saw a large black bear. All the students sat quietly in their tents watching the bear open the garbage dumpster and dump it out. Then, the large bear turned to our food containers and tried to open by lifting them over his head then throwing them on the ground causing them to release. Once the bear got all he needed he left without hurting anyone, but destroying most of our food for the week. At the end of the week we waved good-bye to the campgrounds. Keeping the memories of the dazzling lake, great stories by the fire, the sweet smells of campfire food and most important the unwelcomed visitor the large black bear. I realized that knowing how to protect ourselves in the case of a wild animal attack is valuable knowledge that will never be forgetting. Having a ripping feeling of sadness, Id leave with a smile on my face, knowing Id be back next year.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Creditor Rights in Sovereign Debt Markets Essays

Creditor Rights in Sovereign Debt Markets Essays Creditor Rights in Sovereign Debt Markets Essay Creditor Rights in Sovereign Debt Markets Essay Globally, governments are increasingly defaulting on their debt obligations with the most recent example being Argentina, Greece, Russia and a host of East Asian economies. The situation has elicited mixed reactions in international markets and bilateral institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which have proposed aggregate collective action clauses that protect the investors interests (Broner et al. 2013). According to Noy (2008 p.64-78), without creditors, international financial markets cannot exist; therefore, investors must have meaningful ways to recoup back their investments in case of sovereign default. However, information access is considered key towards making informed investment decisions; thus, close cooperation between sovereign borrowers and creditors is critical. During a default, a countrys financial reputation is questionable, and oversight agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and Iconic agencies such as Moody rating often raise the red flag when dealing with defaulting nations (Diaz-Cassou and Erce 2011, p.14-18). Such defaulting economies suffer economic consequences, including restrictions on accessing financial markets, trade embargo, and tightening of the fiscal deficit in their home countries. These restrictions are implemented because the sovereign creditors, just like ordinary investors, have their rights in the sovereign debt markets. It is in light of this fact that the paper will focus on creditor rights in the sovereign debt markets, the potential costs of sovereign default for a country and the magnitude of the costs likely to be incurred should a country default its sovereign debt obligations. How Economies default their Sovereign Debts Since the advent of the global financial markets, sovereign debts have been considered the safest investment type due to their risk-free nature coupled with their potential for high returns. However, in 2002, the market was shocked when Argentina announced it was unable to service its bond debt. A decade later, Greece restructured its sovereign debts. These two situations elicited mixed market reactions, raising the question, if the two governments completely defaulted, how could investors recover their invested assets? This is because government-issued bonds are considered risk-free and never accompanied by any form of collateral other than the governments guarantee to service its debt (Manns 2015, p.118-152). During the worlds financial meltdown, major economies were pushed into a deep recession because the countries experienced low growth and huge budget deficits, leading to a sharp rise in debt-GDP ratio. Previously, in such scenarios, countries absorbed their debts by utilizing different approaches. By late 2009, the average spreads were still minimal, and the allocation of sovereign hands in the domestic residents was below 50 percent in emerging economies such as Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIIPS) (Ahmed 2016, p.4359; Rogers 2012, p.117-148). The situation deteriorated and economies such as Ireland, Spain, Greece and Argentina reported massive debt deficits than previously anticipated. These events not only slowed down the repayment of the debts, but also affected how different credit instruments were absorbed in the market. The same year, Greece defaulted on its IMF loan repayments, but surprisingly, the same government decided to settle a yen-denominated bond held by private entities fully. The situation was shocking since the IMF is the most authoritative lender and financier of last resort. According to Greeces move, IMF and other multilateral agencies are considered the de facto senior creditors; therefore, raising the question why first settle the yen-dominated debt. However, IMFs senior status as the principal economic lender is not enshrined anywhere legally (Waibel 2014, p.22-41). Creditors Rights in Sovereign Markets Aguilar and Zejan (1985, p.385-395) debated on the relative importance of distressed economies meeting their debt obligations. Key emerging economies such as Argentina, Greece and Bulgaria have underscored the importance of understanding the bargaining positions of their debt-riddled economies. According to Dowell-Jones (2014, p.51-85), the most fundamental question that remains unresolved is What can creditors do to reclaim back their assets if a sovereign nation does not fully ascribe to its debt obligations? Metz and Tudela (2011) continue to argue that sovereignty implies that no single agency globally can seize the assets of a foreign country. This discussion attempts to address the underlying issue using two approaches: Reputation Approach Direct Punishment Reputation Approach This principle works on a very direct premise because countries value the access to the international money market that facilitates smooth consumption in the face of volatile output or fluctuating investment opportunities (Longstaff et al., 2007). Countries are always trusted to issue timely loan repayments, hence do not wish to reprieve their status as good debtors. Considering reputational symmetry, there is no need for the creditors seeking arbitration or political sanctions; rather, investors should understand economies sovereign borrowing limits on external debts since the flow of repayments largely depend on a countrys fundamental computation of consumption spending (Arellano and Bai 2013). Therefore, should creditors extend so much to a country, an elastic limit may be reached whereby the country is unable to retain its debt repayment program. Investors must acknowledge that reputational approach comes with the undeniable feature of analyzing the countrys macroeconomic situati on instead of the murky institutional capacity to participate (Pepino 2015, p.73-95). Punishment Approach It is assumed that foreign creditors have no legal mandate whatsoever to repayment in debtor country courts (Stephanou 2013, p.127-158). However, these are other peoples assets because creditors accord investment rights in sovereign debt contracts, and any controversial government to an individual or government-to-government trade dispute can always be resolved by the international court of justice, affiliated to the IMF and the World Bank (Porte and Heins 2016, p.1-13). Creditors legal rights, if violated in certain cases, may interfere with a countrys business privileges such as imposing embargoes on the free movement of cargo within certain jurisdictions, a scenario that may interfere substantially with a countrys economy. Despite creditors rights, there is also the issue of seniority in the sovereign debt markets, and unlike the corporate debts, there are no legal rules of priority and seniority when it comes to the international debt market (Santiso 2009). Due to the lack of a harmonized standard in relation to a sovereign bankruptcy procedure, no single government can decide which creditor cluster to service their debts and the extent of the payment levels (Dam 2015). Seniority in debt repayments is considered an optional decision, thus not legally enforceable in a court of law. Conclusively, it can be argued that only credit-specific factors propel debt repayment patterns, and a nations economic fundamental cannot be used as a metric illustrating seniority in sovereign debt repayments. For instance, in 2005, Greece defaulted payment to the most senior creditor, the IMF, while serving its junior creditors such as the fund managers and other institutional investors. Factors Driving Sovereign Debt Default One of the key factors prevalent with sovereign default is the accumulation of vast reserves of foreign denominated debts from the market, making the economy unable to make timely payments due to factors such as tight budgets and lack of political goodwill. In such scenarios, sovereign investors find it difficult acquiring support from supranational courts or creditors rights enforcement agencies. According to Wright (2010, p.295315) and Schroeder 2015 p.73-104), when countries default on some of their treasury obligations, it means that the state is no longer willing to handle its debt liabilities or pay up the interest. Signs of sovereign debt defaults begin to emerge when an economy is associated with massive overspending or too much borrowing for approximately 8 to 10 years. However, there are always consequences for the creditors and, in most cases, international negotiations commence, which often end up in partial debt cancellation. Under such an arrangement, partial repayments are remitted while the investor surrenders a huge chunk of the debt. A perfect example is the Argentines economic crisis (1999-2002), whereby creditors unanimously agreed to relinquish 75 percent of the outstanding debt. In certain instances, the creditors may wait for a regime change to recoup their dues. Creditors rights are clearly spelled out in international law, and they not only entail the rights of creditors against the debtor, but also amongst other creditors. In cases where there is a default over several cases, the rules in favor of the creditors rights establish the particular creditor that holds the strongest right towards any particular relief, whether attaching state assets or seeking any other form of compensations if possible. Waibel (2013, p.209251) reiterates that to mitigate against default risks, contemporary economies have responded through issuing bonds in hard currencies via international financial institutions as transaction intermediaries, and as a result, courts have been established in New York, London and Tokyo to deal with cases of aggrieved creditors (Baldacci and Gupta 2011, p.251-263). To curb or control sovereignty credit defaults, the International Capital Market Association (ICMA), an entity legally mandated to oversee the international financial mar ket, has enacted a multilateral legal framework that regulates the sovereign debts restructuring process for the sake of enhancing predictability, stability, and efficiency in the international financial system (Erdem and Varli 2014, p.42-57). Consequences for the Economy If a country defaults its treasury obligations, it simply disposes of its monetary obligations towards creditors. The immediate effect under such a scenario is that the country benefits from an immediate reduction in its debt portfolio and the accompanying interests associated with such debts (Hu, An and Yang 2008). However, the countrys reputation is dented among multilateral creditors and other credit rating agencies (Doug 2014, p.14). This means that the country cannot easily participate in the international financial market because investors perceive the economy as high risk. In a different scenario, foreign lenders may jeopardize the countrys monetary sovereignty. Sovereign defaults also include constrained access to credit not only in international markets, but also domestically since the government of the day has lost its credibility amongst investors. Besides, the domestic financial institutions also hold significant amounts of domestic debts, and if a government defaults, th e situation may degenerate into bank runs and lead into a financial crisis since most investors find it difficult to cope up with broke governments. These effects have consequences to an economys Gross Domestic Product (GDP) because the country is faced with a higher borrowing cost due to its poor credit score (Kolb 2011, p.113). The situation may exacerbate if the creditors are domestic borrowers because the government must always visit financial markets to offset their operational expenses such as paying workers and suppliers. Such a situation may lead to a knock effect on the entire economy and completely paralyze operations (Christodoulakis 2006). Argentinas Case Study Argentina can be used as a perfect case on how a section of an economy may escalate the debt crisis. The country defaulted its sovereign debts in 2002 and the economys fiscal deficit and debt position deteriorated significantly. As a result, the interest rate spread increased dramatically from below 10 percent to almost 50 percentage points by the end of 2001 (Bruno 2009). The Argentine government responded by increasing reliance on local financial institutions, whereby the government debt as a percentage of the banking systems total assets rose from 15 percent in 2000 to 21 percent by the end of 2001 (Wei 2003, p.709-705). In this light, the banking sectors credit risks increased significantly. Besides, the voluntary debt exchanges that increased the maturity of the bonds also increased maturity mismatches on the institutions financial statements. Due to the weakening of the banking system, there were widespread panic withdrawals throughout 2001, whereby deposits fell by 20 percent by the year-end (Fliz 2010, p.52-72; Zutshi 2008). By early 2002, the Treasury confirmed that it was defaulting $18.8 billion of their external debt and concurrently announced it was ditching the currency exchange board regime. These series of events prompted the Peso, Argentines official currency, to fall from 1 peso per US dollar to 3.9 by the end of March 2002. As a result, the country was heavily indebted when the debt is converted into their local currency. The situation impaired the local financial institution systems that provide liquidity and credit to the economy, and the banks credit to the private sector as a proportion of annual GDP reduced by 50 percent from 20.8 percent in 2001 to 10.8 percent by the end of 2003. The scenario led to lessened economic activity, hence increasing the countrys fiscal burden compared to GDP. The banks non-performing loans also increased dramatically when the recession deepened. According to Horn and Fritsche (2012, p.118-126), Argentina had a sovereign debt more than $123.7 billion, which wa s not sustainable even with conservative estimates. Additionally, it is noteworthy that no financial valuation of the countrys export and import growth could deliver the requisite net long-run foreign exchange earnings adequate for servicing the debt, even if the countrys interest levels were to move back to pre-crisis level. The countrys trade deficit expanded and its currency got overvalued, trade liberalization stalled and the exports only comprised of an insignificant share of the countrys economic bedrock (Schaumberg 2014, p.135-154).

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Management - Essay Example uring industry like oil and gasoline, the transfer price becomes major factor for intermediate goods like crude oil which could be bought from its drilling division or from external market (Besanko et al., 2010). The major disadvantage of deciding to make intermediate products is that firms often require more than one intermediate good for their final product and therefore making them could turnout to be very complex with huge investment. Hence, it is not feasible for manufacturing firms to make intermediate goods when they are easily available in the open market. The main advantage of making intermediate goods is that company may not be dependent on the external market and could gain relative cost advantage within the industry if it has the resources available for intermediate goods as well as for the final product. For drilling companies of crude oil, their refinery divisions use their crude from their drilling division to make final products like gasoline. The transfer price in such cases is hugely cost effective. In general, the transfer price becomes a vital factor that dictates buying or making decisions for the intermediate